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However, there were many difficulties during the initial phase of production causing high rejection rates due to faulty receivers. Alexa Actionable Analytics for the Web. However, the series side folding stocks cannot be folded with the optics mounted.

New Jersey Legal AK47 Rifle RAK 47 Riley Defense

AK, AK (manufactured locally at the State-run Gafat Armament Engineering Complex as the Et/1) Finland RK 62, (×39mm) RK 95 TP, (×39mm) improvements including a fire control selector and a muzzle device that enabled the firing of rifle grenades, the attachment of a silencer, or bayonet.

Beginning in , the AK was replaced in first-line Soviet service by the AKM, a modernized version fitted with longer-range sights and cheaper mass-produced parts, including a stamped sheet-metal receiver and a plywood buttstock and forward grip. Despite their obvious advantages, the AK and the AKM were considered by the Soviet military to have problems with accuracy, mainly because of recoil forces generated by the powerful 7. Those problems were partly addressed during the s, when the AKM was replaced by the AK , which adapted the basic Kalashnikov design to a smaller 5.

One candidate, the AN, allowed two rounds to be fired in rapid succession before recoil forces were generated. Other candidates, the AK and AEK, introduced mechanical parts whose movements balanced those of the blowback-generating mechanisms.

None of these weapons was accepted for standard issue to the Russian army, however. Kalashnikov assault rifles remain the basic shoulder weapons of many armies that once had political and military ties to the Soviet Union , and they have long been the favoured weapon for many guerrilla and nationalist movements throughout the world. The symbolic value of the AK to such movements is demonstrated by its presence on the coats of arms of numerous countries as well as on the flag of Mozambique. It has been estimated that some million AKs have been produced—fully half of them outside Russia, and many of those under expired Soviet-era licenses or no license at all.

A full range of weapons that can trace their design history back to the AK are produced by the Izhmash armaments company in Izhevsk , Russia. We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles. You can make it easier for us to review and, hopefully, publish your contribution by keeping a few points in mind. Your contribution may be further edited by our staff, and its publication is subject to our final approval. Unfortunately, our editorial approach may not be able to accommodate all contributions.

Our editors will review what you've submitted, and if it meets our criteria, we'll add it to the article. Please note that our editors may make some formatting changes or correct spelling or grammatical errors, and may also contact you if any clarifications are needed. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. Wyman, commander of the U. After modifications most notably, the charging handle was re-located from under the carrying handle like AR to the rear of the receiver , [81] the new redesigned rifle was subsequently adopted as the M16 Rifle.

The air-cooled, gas-operated, magazine-fed assault rifle was made of steel, aluminum alloy and composite plastics, truly cutting-edge for the time. Designed with full and semi-automatic capabilities, the weapon initially did not respond well to wet and dirty conditions, sometimes even jamming in combat. After a few minor modifications, the weapon gained in popularity among troops on the battlefield. Despite its early failures the M16 proved to be a revolutionary design and stands as the longest continuously serving rifle in American military history.

The M16 is a select-fire, 5. It was designed above all else to be a lightweight assault rifle, and to fire a new lightweight, high velocity small caliber cartridge to allow the soldier to carry more ammunition. At peak production, Colt's manufacturing capacity was approximately , units per year [90] The M16 continues to benefit from every advance in the CNC field.

M16 rifle production in the case of a major conflict. The AK is a select-fire, 7. It was designed to be a simple, reliable automatic rifle that could be manufactured quickly and cheaply, using mass production methods that were state of the art in the Soviet Union during the late s.

The AK's barrel and bolt were milled out of a steel billet and hard chromed. Its receiver was originally designed to be stamped from sheet metal with a milled trunnion insert. However, there were many difficulties during the initial phase of production causing high rejection rates due to faulty receivers. In , the sheet metal stamping process was perfected, simplifying production and reducing the weight of the rifle from 3. Over time, AK production has been simplified through the use of rivets, [] spot welding and by further reducing the number of machined parts.

Current model AK's are made using modern manufacturing processes and have many component parts produced by investment casting. At peak production, Kalashnikov Concern formerly Izhmash [1] can produce around 95 units per hour about , units per year. However, the milled-steel AK has spawned a cottage industry of sorts and has been copied and manufactured one gun at a time in small shops around the world.

The M16 has a well designed safety lever located on the left side of the weapon that is easily manipulated by the user's thumb while maintaining a strong hold on the pistol-grip. With the proper mind-set, training and practice, soldiers armed with both the AK and M16 are quite deadly. However, the M16's direct impingement gas operation system, straight-line recoil design and smaller caliber give it less recoil than the AK and makes it easier to control in full-auto.

This allows recoil forces to drive straight to the rear. Instead of connecting or other mechanical parts driving the system, high pressure gas performs this function, reducing the weight of moving parts and the rifle as a whole. Because recoil does not significantly shift the point of aim, faster follow-up shots are possible and user fatigue is reduced.

Also, current model M16 flash-suppressors also act as compensators to reduce recoil further. With the AK's long-stroke piston gas system , the piston is mechanically fixed to the bolt group and moves through the entire operating cycle.

The primary disadvantage to this system is the disruption of the point of aim due to the center of mass changing during the action cycle and energetic and abrupt stops at the beginning and end of bolt carrier travel. However, the AK's heavier weight and slower rate-of-fire do a good job of mitigating any disadvantage.

In addition, newer AK type rifles use a muzzle brake or compensator to reduce recoil. Free Recoil is mathematical equation calculated by using the rifle weight, bullet weight, muzzle velocity and charge weight. A longer barrel also provides a longer path for the projectile to stabilize prior to exiting the barrel, while allotting a longer period of time for the propellant charge to act on the projectile, often resulting in higher muzzle velocities and more consistent trajectories.

A long barrel inherently provides more mass available for heat transfer, increasing the heat transfer rate incurred between shots, in turn allotting less warpage in the barrel, helping to improve consistency and ultimately accuracy. The M16 has a The rear sight can be adjusted in the field for windage. The sights can be adjusted with a bullet tip and soldiers are trained to zero their own rifles.

The M16 also has a "Low Light Level Sight System", which includes a front sight post with a small glass vial of glow-in-the-dark radioactive Tritium H3 and a larger aperture rear sight. With the advent of the M16A2, a new fully adjustable rear sight was added, allowing the rear sight to be dialed in for specific range settings between and meters and to allow windage adjustments without the need of a tool or cartridge.

The AK has a Windage adjustment is done by the armory before issue. The "fixed" battle setting can be used for all ranges up to meters. Longer range settings are intended for area suppression. Some AK type rifles have a front sight with a flip-up luminous dot that is calibrated at 50 meters, for improved night fighting. A brief comparison between cartridges reveals that the M16's lighter, higher-velocity 5. The effective range of a firearm is the maximum distance at which a weapon may be expected to be accurate and achieve the desired effect.

The horizontal range is the distance traveled by a bullet, fired from the rifle at a height of 1. This maximum range is only of safety interest, not for combat firing.

The M16 rifle is "accurate beyond description". The AK's accuracy has always been considered to be "good enough" to hit an adult male torso out to about meters.

Stamped receivers on the other hand are a bit more rugged since it has some give in it and have less chances of having metal fatigue under heavy usage. A brief comparison between cartridges reveals that the AK's heavier 7. The AK's heavier 7. The original ammunition for the M16 was the 5. In March , the U. By the mid s, other armies were looking at Mstyle weapons.

A NATO standardization effort soon started and tests of various rounds were carried out starting in Most, if not all, of the 7. This variety deleted the steel insert, shifting the center of gravity rearward and allowing the projectile to destabilize or yaw at about 3. There is now relative parity between the wounding capacity of the M67 and the current M 5.

However, there have been repeated and consistent reports of the M's inability to wound effectively i. In , the U. Army contended that the lack of lethality of the 5. During the s, the Russians developed the AK in 5. Serbia have also rechambered their locally produced AK variants to 5.

Modern service rifle cartridges cases: Both the AK and the M16 are select-fire weapons capable of firing in semi-automatic and full-auto, or semi-auto and 3-round-burst for the later model M16s. However, the semi-auto and 3-round-burst capability of the M16A2 and M4 models have less combat capability than their predecessors or AK type rifles. The AK does not have a three-round burst capability. The M16A2 and M4 models have replaced the full-auto mode of fire with a three-round burst capability.

Both the AK and the M16 will overheat fairly quickly under normal combat conditions and have a sustained rate of fire as low as 12 to 15 rounds per minute about the same as a bolt-action rifle.

The standard magazine capacity for both the AK and M16 type rifles is 30 rounds, although lower and higher capacity magazines are available for both systems. However, the single most limiting factor in terms of firepower is the amount of ammunition that a soldier can carry. All of these grenades, launchers and shotguns add additional bulk and weight to the soldiers war-load and as a result, they reduce the amount rifle ammunition that soldiers can carry. For example, a modern French AC58 "bullet trap" rifle grenade is mm long and weighs 0.

Marine sights a Zastava M70 with 22mm grenade launcher attached to the muzzle. Neither the AK nor the M16 were designed to mount accessories, except of course for their respective bayonets and a simple clamp type bipod for the M In addition, the M16 is "the Swiss Army knife of rifles" a modular weapon system whose components can be arranged in a variety of different configuration. Afghan border police aiming an AK type rifle with Picatinny rails, holographic weapon sight and foregrip.

Today, bayonets are rarely used in combat. Also, bayonets are still used for controlling prisoners and as a weapon of "last resort". The M16 is The newer M9 bayonet has a clip-point blade with saw teeth along the spine, and can be used as a multi-purpose knife and wire-cutter when combined with its scabbard. The AK is The AK has always enjoyed a reputation for rugged reliability and has a malfunction rate of one per rounds fired.

The gas tube is fairly large and is visible above the barrel with ports or vents to allow the excess "dirty" gas to escape without affecting the action. The AK is often built with generous clearances, allowing it to function easily in a dirty environment with little or no maintenance.

This makes it reliable but less accurate. The M16 has always had a reputation for poor reliability and has a malfunction rate of two per rounds fired. The gas expands within a donut shaped gas cylinder within the carrier. The bolt bears a piston head and the cavity in the bolt carrier is the piston sleeve. It is more correct to call it an "internal piston" system. However, this design requires that combustion byproducts from the discharged cartridge be blown into the receiver as well.

This accumulating carbon and vaporized metal build-up within the receiver and bolt-carrier negatively affects reliability and necessitates more intensive maintenance on the part of the individual soldier.

The DI operation increases the amount of heat that is deposited in the receiver while firing the M16 and causes essential lubricant to be "burned off". This requires frequent and generous applications of appropriate lubricant. The original M16 fared poorly in the jungles of Vietnam and was infamous for reliability problems in the harsh environment. As a result, it became the target of a Congressional investigation. When these issues were addressed and corrected by the M16A1, the reliability problems decreased greatly.

When asked what weapon they preferred to carry in combat, 85 percent indicated that they wanted either the M16 or its submachine gun version, the XME2. The M14 was preferred by 15 percent, while less than one percent wished to carry either the Stoner rifle , the AK, the carbine or a pistol. After the introduction of the M4 Carbine, it was found that the shorter barrel length of In tests conducted in and the Army found that on average, the new M4s and M16s fired approximately 5, rounds between stoppages.

Marines operating in Afghanistan reported no reliability problems with their M16 rifles and M4 carbines. Smith, the Marine responsible for weapons training and performance in the Third Battalion, Sixth Marines, which is engaged in daily fighting in Marja. The battalion has about Ms and M-4s, he said. The newest version of the M16 in U. This design prevents combustion gases from entering the weapon's interior, a shortcoming with direct impingement systems.

Also, the design of the external gas piston system is less susceptible to build up of other contaminants in extreme environments. They are responsible for the feeding portion of the cycle of operation. Even in the most proven arm that reliably extracts and ejects, the magazine has to be percent reliable for it to consistently feed properly.

Their heavy steel construction combined with "feed-lips" the surfaces at the top of the magazine that control the angle at which the cartridge enters the chamber machined from a single steel billet makes them highly resistant to damage.

These magazines are so strong that "Soldiers have been known to use their mags as hammers, and even bottle openers. The early slab-sided steel AK magazines weigh 0. The M16's magazine was meant to be a lightweight, disposable item. Military began fielding an "improved magazine" identified by a tan-colored follower. The performance gains have not added weight or cost to the magazines. In July , the U. Army introduced the new Enhanced Performance Magazine.

AK type rifles are made in dozens of countries, with "quality ranging from finely engineered weapons to pieces of questionable workmanship. Both the AK and the M16 have small parts and springs that need to be replaced every few thousand rounds. Some parts of the AK line are riveted together. Repairing these can be quite a hassle, since the end of the rivet has to be ground off and a new one set after the part is replaced.

M16 type rifles are made by dozens of manufactures around the world, to the highest standards "the goal of which is to ensure that products designed for military use meet the necessary requirements with regard to quality, durability, ruggedness, commonality, interchangeability, total cost of ownership, logistics and other military and defense-related objectives.

An M16 rifle that has been declared non-serviceable may be sent to a Small Arms Repair Facility, where it is overhauled, upgraded and returned to service.

The AK is best described as a modified version of the 7. The AR was not equipped with any flash suppressor during the conduct of this test. Also, there was only a small amount of ammunition available for use in the AK As a result, the night firing capability of both the AR and AK were not properly tested.

The AK was not equipped with a flash suppressor. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. M16A2 top and AK bottom assault rifles.

Whereas, the M16 and current models of the AK use synthetic materials, which have consistent weights. M16A2 with new adjustable rear-sight, case deflector, heavy barrel and improved furniture. Current AK with compensator, side-folding stock and synthetic furniture. Rear sight of Chinese AK type rifle. Wound profiles in ballistic gelatin Note: Israeli paratrooper prepares to launch Simon rifle grenade from M4 Carbine.

AKMS with commercial Picatinny rail fore-stock and folding pistol-grip attachment. Early AK assault rifle with rust-colored plastic magazine and laminated wood furniture. AKS with stamped-steel triangular-shaped side-folding buttstock. Cutshaw, Krause Publications, , p. Weapons and tactics of the Soviet Army. The American Rifleman pp. Fackler, Md Archived at the Wayback Machine.. Weaponomics The Economics of Small Arms. United States Department of Defense. How to Make War: Klare June 20, Warfare in the 21st Century, By Eric L.

Everybody has been saying since the s that the M16 is a legacy weapon. July page The Long Road to the AK Such comparisons, especially if meant to demonstrate that one is better than the other, must be made with caution. While both are intended for close to moderate-range combat, these are two different weapons with different design philosophies, which use different materials and manufacturing techniques and very different tactical employment concepts.

Their ammunition is also very different and this too has a major influence on their effectiveness. Retrieved 3 April Department of the Army. Today's Deals See all deals. Books best sellers See more. Most wished for in Video Games See more. Get to Know Us. English Choose a language for shopping. Amazon Music Stream millions of songs. Amazon Drive Cloud storage from Amazon.

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